Physicists have long wondered if the gravitational interaction between antimatter and matter might be different than that between matter and itself. Do atoms made of antimatter, like antihydrogen, fall at a different rate to those made of matter, or might they even fall up -- antigravity? There are many arguments that make the case that the interaction must be the same, but no-one has ever observed what an anti-atom does in a gravitational field - until now.
Today, the ALPHA Collaboration has published results in Nature Communications placing the first experimental limits on the ratio of the graviational and inertial masses of antihydrogen (the ratio is very close to one for hydrogen). We observed the times and positions at which 434 trapped antihydrogen atoms escaped our magnetic trap, and searched for the influence of a gravitational force. Based on our data, we can exclude the possibility that the gravitiational mass of antihydrogen is more than 110 times its inertial mass, or that it falls upwards with a gravitational mass more than 65 times its inertial mass.
Our results far from settle the question of antimatter gravity. But they open the way towards higher-precision measurments in the future, using the same technique, but more, and colder trapped antihydrogen atoms, and a better understanding of the systematic effects in our apparatus.
Read the paper on Nature Communications at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2787
Right now everyone at ALPHA is busy assembly the ALPHA-2 apparatust, the sucessor to ALPHA. The most recent parts to arrive have been the atom-trap cryostat built in TRIUMF in Vancouver, and the new superconducting solenoid, built by Oxford Instruments in the UK and financed by the Danish Carlsberg Foundation. They join the catching trap, designed by the Cockcroft Institute and the existing positron accumulator from ALPHA to make up the complete chain of apparatus being used in ALPHA-2.
The first antiprotons were caught last night in the new ALPHA2 catching trap, the first component of the next generation of the ALPHA experiment to be installed. This is the representation of the first 'hot dump' -- where we release the captured antiprotons, allowing them to annihilate on the surrounding apparatus. The annihilation converts the antiprotons into high-energy charged particles, which are counted by detectors surrounding the apparatus. Because we detect the annihilations at the same time as we release the trap, we can be sure that the antiprotons have been captured in the trap. Read more about the Penning trap in How ALPHA works.
The catching trap, designed in collaboration with staff at the Daresbury Laboratory and the Cockcroft Institute in the UK, will be responsible for cooling 5MeV antiprotons from the AD, and supplying them on demand to the ALPHA2 atom trap, which will be installed later this year. Construction has been taking place at the AD for the last month, and even though there's a long way to go before the apparatus achieves its full potential, this is a big milestone for us at ALPHA.
The construction team at CERN
Once you've trapped antihydrogen what do you do? You measure it! That's just what we've done. Published in Nature, we report the first resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen atoms. We've used microwave radiation to change the internal state of the atom, from one which can be kept in our trap, to one that is kicked out. This process depends on the frequency of the microwave radiation and the magnetic field in the trap, so by changing both of these, we demonstrated that we had enough control and sensitivity to sucessfully carry out the experiment. This is by no means easy, as antihydrogen is not found in nature, but must be prepared in our apparatus from antiprotons made in the Antiproton Decelerator, and positrons from a radioactive source, Even more, it must have low enough energy to remain trapped in the magnetic fields making up our trap. Here's an animation describing how we do our measurement.
Eventually, we will use this technique to compare the structure of antihydrogen and hydrogen atoms, to search for difference between matter and antimatter, but In this first experiment, we do not yet have enough precision to test these fundamental symmetries. This is important, as the Universe has shown a preference for matter over antimatter as it has evolved, but so far, no measurements can explain why this came about. If matter and antimatter were truely identical, the Universe as we know it could not have come about. The next step at ALPHA is to construct an apparatus that will allow us to make these more precise measurements, using both microwave radiation, and laser light.
We've been waiting a long time for this result, so we're really happy -- the CERN People documentary has been following us through the process -- check out the first video here.
Our new octupole is being made at Brookhaven National Laboratory - here's a video that they've sent us of the work in progress.
The superconducting wire is laid down by a machine-controlled head, and bonded in place as it goes. The new octupole will be welded into the ALPHA-2 cryostat and comissioned at CERN this summer. Thanks to the BNL Superconductng Magnet Division for making this video for us.
The Carlsberg Foundation of Denmark has awarded a large research grant to ALPHA Spokesperson Professor Jeffrey Hangst of Aarhus University. The award, of 3.3 million Danish kroner, will be used to purchase a new superconducting solenoid magnet for our next generation antihydrogen trapping device, known as ALPHA-2. In 2012, the ALPHA-2 machine will replace the current ALPHA device, which is the first (and so far the only) machine to magnetically trap atoms of antihydrogen. The new apparatus will allow ALPHA researchers to begin precision laser and microwave spectroscopy of trapped antimatter atoms. The goal is to test whether atoms of matter and atoms of antimatter obey the same laws of physics. The Carlsberg Foundation was created by Carlsberg founder J.C. Jacobsen in 1876 and has a long history of supporting scientific research in Denmark. We in ALPHA would like to thank the Carslberg Foundation for their generous support.
The American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics awarded its John Dawson award for excellence in plasma physics research to several ALPHA members. Will Bertsche, Paul Bowe, Mike Charlton, Joel Fajans, Makoto Fujiwara, Jeffrey Hangst, Niels Madsen, Francis Robicheaux, Daniel Silveira, Dirk Van der Werf and Jonathan Wurtele were cited "For the introduction and use of innovative plasma techniques which produced the first demonstration of the trapping of antihydrogen."
|A schematic of the ELENA ring, to be built at the CERN AD.|
The first construction meeting for the Extra-Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring kicks off at CERN today. ELENA, approved by the CERN research board last July, is an additional ring in the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) building, designed to slow the 3.5 MeV beam from the AD to 100keV before delivering the beam to the experiments. What this means for experiments like ALPHA is that we can use much thinner matter foils to slow the antiproton beam down before capturing them in the trap, which in turn can mean a hundredfold increase in capture efficiency.
The meeting involves presentations from the experiments on past achievements, and future goals, from the CERN departments on the technical challenges and plans to meet them, and from external institues, committing financial and technical add to the project.
Read more at the CERN press release.