Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen
We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.
Silveira, D. M., Andresen, G. B., Ashkezari, M. D., Baquero-Ruiz, M., Bertsche, W., Bowe, P. D., Butler, E., Cesar, C. L., Chapman, S., Charlton, M., Fajans, J., Friesen, T., Fujiwara, M. C., Gill, D. R., Hangst, J. S., Hardy, W. N., Hayden, M. E., Hydomako, R., Jonsell, S., Kurchaninov, L., Madsen, N., Menary, S., Nolan, P., Olchanski, K., Olin, A., Povilus, A., Pusa, P., Robicheaux, F., Sarid, E., So, C., Storey, J. W., Thompson, R. I., van der Werf, D. P., Wurtele, J. S., AIP Conf. Proc. 1521, 165 (2013)